HESPERIA WP3 produced simulation results of coronal shock acceleration and particle transport aimed at explaining long-duration high-energy gamma-ray events observed by Fermi/LAT. The WP utilized three simulation models

  • Coronal Shock Acceleration (CSA) model of UTU, which traces energetic particles and their resonant Alfvén waves in the upstream region of a shock wave. It was used to compute the spectrum of accelerated particles at the shock for several different fields magnetic lines at the source.
  • Shock-and-Particle (SaP) model of UB, which computes the distribution functions of energetic particles at 1 AU given the source of particles at the shock. It was used to estimate the source function needed to explain the 1-AU observations and the related particle distribution at the shock.
  • DownStream Propagation (DSP) model, which traces energetic particles in the region behind the shock and the solar surface and computes the fluence and time-profile of near-relativistic protons precipitating at the solar surface.

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